Odd phonemes/phonemic distinctionsEdit
- It seems that languages naturally prefer netakavíhki phonemes, so we can use the rareness of a phoneme as an indicator of its takavíhkiness.
- The same is of course true for the phonemic distinctions a language makes.
- Ugliness also plays an important role here. /χ/ and /ɹ/ are ugly and therefore also takavíhki, as are nasal vowels.
- Note that this is one of the instances where ugliness is objective.
- What follows is an as of yet incomplete list of phonemes and their respective takavíhkiness values:
- Nasals: /n m/ are entirely netakavíhki. It seems /ɳ ɲ ŋ/ aren't quite as common so they'll be +1. /ɱ ɴ/ shouldn't exist as phonemes and are therefore +5. Voiceless nasals are of course extra takavíhki; their takavíhkiness value is that of their voiced counterpart +2.
- Plosives: /p t k/ + voicing and/or aspirations are the six stops that pretty much every language has, and therefore netakavíhki. /q/ is a lot rarer and therefore +2. The same can be said about ejectives, which are also +2. /ɢ/ is even rarer and therefore +4. Distinguishing laminal/apical or dental/alveolar is +3.
- Fricatives: /f s ʃ/ are pretty universal, some languages having /ɸ/ instead of /f/, which, as it is slightly rarer, is +1. Voicing seems to be less common than in stops but nevertheless it is still so common that it deserves full netakavíhkiness. /θ ð/ are +3. Languages should be careful with their dorsal fricatives: netakavíhki dorsal fricatives are velar, preferably front-velar, but not palatal, and definitely not uvular. /x ɣ/ are therefore netakavíhki, whereas /ç ʝ/ are +2 and /χ/ is +10. Aspiration on fricatives shouldn't exist, so that's +5 per aspirated fricative.
- Approximants: /j w/ are +0. /ɹ/ is ugly and therefore +10. A uvular approximant is +3. The two netakavíhki lateral approximants are /l/ and /ɫ/. All other approximants are +4. Voiceless approximants have as their takavíhkiness value that of their voiced counterpart +2.
- Trills and taps: /r ɾ/ are not necessarily takavíhki, though distinguishing them is +2. /ʙ/ is +5. /ʀ/ is +3. I don't need to tell how takavíhki voiceless trills are, do I? :P
- Vowels: /a ɛ e i ɔ o u/ are netakavíhki. Front rounded vowels are +1. Back unrounded vowels are +3. Other qualities are +2. Nasalisation distinction on some of the vowels is +5, on all of the vowels it's +8, and having nasal vowels without oral counterparts is +10. Distinguishing multiple phonations is +5.
- Again, the rarity of a gap correlates with its takavíhkiness.
- If the missing sound happens to be an ugly one, the language will be forgiven.
- Lacking both of /ɧ ɣ/: +10
- Lacking /g/: +1
- Voiced velar obstruents without voiceless counterparts: +5
- Lacking labial, coronal and/or dorsal consonants: +10
- Most languages allow more complex syllables than just CV.
- Most languages don't allow words like xłp̓x̣ʷłtłpłłskʷc̓.
- We'll consider (C)(R)V(R)(C) the least takavíhki syllable structure. In this case, C excludes R. Every deviation from this gives raises the language's takavíhkiness by 1.
- There are irregularities that affect a single word (i.e. no other verb in English is conjugated like "to be"), those that affect a closed class of words (i.e. the strong verbs in English) and those that are fully predictable (i.e. the genitive of Swedish nouns ending in /s/ being identical to the nominative). The takavíhkiness of the first type is 5, that of the second is 3, and that of the last is 1.
- Note that having multiple inflection classes should be considered an irregularity.
- Derivations are not considered separate words.
- It is assumed that the total sum of this in an entirely netakavíhki language is n, therefore n is subtracted from the takavíhkiness from irregularities and the absolute value of that is taken.
- Rarity again...
The way inflections are formedEdit
- Suffixing appears to be way more common than prefixing and is therefore netakavíhki. Being mainly prefixing is therefore +3. Using mainly circumfixes or infixes is +10.
- SVO and SOV are netakavíhki as the most popular word orders, VSO is +3, VOS is +5, OVS and OSV are mykefötakavíhki and both give +10.
- Features that are different from most other dialects/closely related languages are takavíhki, features that are unique to a particular dialect even more so. Features shared with most other dialects do not raise the takavíhkiness.
- Should the difference between two dialects be the lack of an ugly phoneme, that dialect will be forgiven.
- This is for comparison between dialects and closely related languages and can be ignored otherwise.
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